Below is an annotated bibliography related to the sustainability of biotechnology and pharmaceutical technologies used in modern agriculture.
The environmental impact of dairy production: 1944 compared with 2007. Journal of Animal Science,Capper, J. L., Cady, R. A., Bauman, D. E. 2009; 87 (6): 2160 DOI: 10.2527/jas.2009-1781 (reduced carbon footprint in dairy production)
New York Times Don't Cry Over rBST Milk June 29, 2007
“Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications for the Food System.” Doyle et al., Institute of Food Technologists Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol.5, Issue 3, 2006ter for Molecular (safety of pharmaceutical technologies in food production in relation to antibiotic use in livestock)
"Microbiological Quality of Ground Beef From Conventionally-Reared Cattle and "Raised without Antibiotics" Label Claims" Journal of Food Protection, July 2004,Vol 67 Issue 7 p. 1433-1437 (factors other than the sub therapeutic use of antibiotics in beef production contribute to antimicrobial resistant bacteria in ground beef)
San Diego Center for Molecular Agriculture: Foods from Genetically Modified Crops ( pdf) (summary of environmental and health benefits of biotechnology)
‘‘Hybrid Corn.’’ Abelson, P.H. (1990) Science 249 (August 24): 837. (improved diversity of crops planted )
Enterprise and Biodiversity: Do Market Forces Yield Diversity of Life?
David Schap and Andrew T. Young Cato Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring/Summer 1999) (improved diversity of crops planted )
A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Bt Cotton and Maize on Nontarget Invertebrates.
Michelle Marvier, Chanel McCreedy, James Regetz, Peter Kareiva
Science 8 June 2007: Vol. 316. no. 5830, pp. 1475 – 1477 (reduced impact on biodiversity)
‘‘Diversity of United States Hybrid Maize Germplasm as Revealed by
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms.’’ Smith, J.S.C.; Smith, O.S.; Wright, S.; Wall, S.J.; and Walton, M. (1992) Crop Science 32: 598–604 (improved diversity of crops planted)
Comparison of Fumonisin Concentrations in Kernels of Transgenic Bt Maize Hybrids and Nontransgenic Hybrids. Munkvold, G.P. et al . Plant Disease 83, 130-138 1999. (Improved safety and reduced carcinogens in biotech crops)
Indirect Reduction of Ear Molds and Associated Mycotoxins in Bacillus thuringiensis Corn Under Controlled and Open Field Conditions: Utility and Limitations. Dowd, J. Economic Entomology. 93 1669-1679 2000. (Improved safety and reduced carcinogens in biotech crops)
“Why Spurning Biotech Food Has Become a Liability.’ Miller, Henry I, Conko, Gregory, & Drew L. Kershe. Nature Biotechnology Volume 24 Number 9 September 2006. (Health and environmental benefits of biotechnology)
Genetically Engineered Crops: Has Adoption Reduced Pesticide Use?Agricultural Outlook ERS/USDA Aug 2000 (environmental benefits)
GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-
Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming. Science 31 May 2002: Vol. 296. no. 5573, pp. 1694 – 1697 DOI: 10.1126/science.1071148 (20% lower yields in non-biotech organic foods)
‘Association of farm management practices with risk of Escherichia coli contamination in pre-harvest produce grown in Minnesota and Wisconsin.’ International Journal of Food Microbiology Volume 120, Issue 3, 15 December 2007, Pages 296-302 (comparison of E.Coli risks and modern vs. organic food production methods)
The Environmental Safety and Benefits of Growth Enhancing Pharmaceutical Technologies in Beef Production. By Alex Avery and Dennis Avery, Hudson Institute, Centre for Global Food Issues. (Grain feeding combined with growth promotants also results in a nearly 40 percent reduction in greenhouse gases (GHGs) per pound of beef compared to grass feeding (excluding nitrous oxides), with growth promotants accounting for fully 25 percent of the emissions reductions- see also: Organic, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef: Profitability and constraints to Production in the Midwestern U.S. Nicolas Acevedo John D. Lawrence Margaret Smith August, 2006. Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture)