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Below is a summary of most of the research in this area. (this is a direct copy/paste from the U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee Report '50 Years of Research on the Minimum Wage, 1995). Note, very few studies [Card (1992b), Card and Krueger (1994), and Katz and Krueger (1992)] empirically challenge the consensus that minimum wages make it harder for individuals to find jobs or that they suffer loss of employment as a result.
- The minimum wage reduces employment.
Currie and Fallick (1993), Gallasch (1975), Gardner (1981), Peterson (1957), Peterson and Stewart (1969).
- The minimum wage reduces employment more among teenagers than adults.
Adie (1973); Brown, Gilroy and Kohen (1981a, 1981b); Fleisher (1981); Hammermesh (1982); Meyer and Wise (1981, 1983a); Minimum Wage Study Commission (1981); Neumark and Wascher (1992); Ragan (1977); Vandenbrink (1987); Welch (1974, 1978); Welch and Cunningham (1978).
- The minimum wage reduces employment most among black teenage males.
Al-Salam, Quester, and Welch (1981), Iden (1980), Mincer (1976), Moore (1971), Ragan (1977), Williams (1977a, 1977b).
- The minimum wage helped South African whites at the expense of blacks.
- The minimum wage hurts blacks generally.
Behrman, Sickles and Taubman (1983); Linneman (1982).
- The minimum wage hurts the unskilled.
- The minimum wage hurts low wage workers.
Brozen (1962), Cox and Oaxaca (1986), Gordon (1981).
- The minimum wage hurts low wage workers particularly during cyclical downturns.
Kosters and Welch (1972), Welch (1974).
- The minimum wage increases job turnover.
- The minimum wage reduces average earnings of young workers.
Meyer and Wise (1983b).
- The minimum wage drives workers into uncovered jobs, thus lowering wages in those sectors.
Brozen (1962), Tauchen (1981), Welch (1974).
- The minimum wage reduces employment in low-wage industries, such as retailing.
Cotterman (1981), Douty (1960), Fleisher (1981), Hammermesh (1981), Peterson (1981).
- The minimum wage hurts small businesses generally.
- The minimum wage causes employers to cut back on training.
Hashimoto (1981, 1982), Leighton and Mincer (1981), Ragan (1981).
- The minimum wage has long-term effects on skills and lifetime earnings.
Brozen (1969), Feldstein (1973).
- The minimum wage leads employers to cut back on fringe benefits.
McKenzie (1980), Wessels (1980).
- The minimum wage encourages employers to install labor-saving devices.
Trapani and Moroney (1981).
- The minimum wage hurts low-wage regions, such as the South and rural areas.
Colberg (1960, 1981), Krumm (1981).
- The minimum wage increases the number of people on welfare.
Brandon (1995), Leffler (1978).
- The minimum wage hurts the poor generally.
- The minimum wage does little to reduce poverty.
Bonilla (1992), Brown (1988), Johnson and Browning (1983), Kohen and Gilroy (1981), Parsons (1980), Smith and Vavrichek (1987).
- The minimum wage helps upper income families.
Bell (1981), Datcher and Loury (1981), Johnson and Browning (1981), Kohen and Gilroy (1981).
- The minimum wage helps unions.
Linneman (1982), Cox and Oaxaca (1982).
- The minimum wage lowers the capital stock.
- The minimum wage increases inflationary pressure.
Adams (1987), Brozen (1966), Gramlich (1976), Grossman (1983).
- The minimum wage increases teenage crime rates.
Hashimoto (1987), Phillips (1981).
- The minimum wage encourages employers to hire illegal aliens.
- Few workers are permanently stuck at the minimum wage.
Brozen (1969), Smith and Vavrichek (1992).
- The minimum wage has had a massive impact on unemployment in Puerto Rico.
Freeman and Freeman (1991), Rottenberg (1981b).
- The minimum wage has reduced employment in foreign countries.
Canada: Forrest (1982); Chile: Corbo (1981); Costa Rica: Gregory (1981); France: Rosa (1981).
- Characteristics of minimum wage workers
Employment Policies Institute (1994), Haugen and Mellor (1990), Kniesner (1981), Mellor (1987), Mellor and Haugen (1986), Smith and Vavrichek (1987), Van Giezen (1994).
Finds that an increase in the minimum wage from $3.35 to $4.65 over three years would increase the unemployment rate by less than 0.1% and the inflation rate by 0.2%.Adie, Douglas K. 1973. Teen-Age Unemployment and Real Federal Minimum Wages. Journal of Political Economy, vol. 81 (March/April): 435-441.