Tuesday, June 12, 2012

References Related to Cry1Ab Protein Toxicity and Absorption

The first article below circulated the web (largely among foodies) some tie ago. Despite its many flaws (involving something as simple as interpreting the coefficient of variation) it still resurfaces, and contributes to stoking misplaced fears about biotechnology and pregnant women. David Tribe has done an excellent job reviewing the related literature (see 

Below are just some of the articles discussed. 

(1) Aris A, Leblanc S. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Feb 18. [Epub ahead of print] 
(2) Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein and the genetic material necessary for its production (pTDL004 or pTDL008) in Event T303-3 or T304-40 cotton plants (006525) Experimental Use Permit Fact Regulating Biopesticides -Active Ingredient Index. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007 www.epa-gov/op00001/pesticide 
(3) Dent CE, Schilling GA . Studies on the Absorption of Proteins: the Amino-acid Pattern in the Portal Blood . Biochem. J. 1949; 34 : 318 -335 
(4) Mathews DM. Protein Absoprtion. J.clin Path. 1972; 24,Supp.5 : 29-40 
(5) Mathews DM, Adibi SA. Peptide absorption. Gastroenterology. 1976 Jul;71(1):151-61 
(6) Bowen R. Absoprtion of amino acids and peptides, 2008. www.colostate.edu 
(7) Wickham M, Faulks R, Mills C. In vitro digestion methods for assessing the effect of food structure on allergen breakdown. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Aug;53(8):952-8 
(8) Untersmayr E, Jensen-Jarolim E. The role of protein digestibility and antacids on food allergy outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008; 121: 1301-8. 
(9) Paganelli R, Levinsky RJ. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for detection of circulating food protein antigens in human serum. J Immunol Methods. 1980; 37: 333-41. 
(10) Moreno FJ, Rubio LA, Olano A, Clemente A.. Uptake of 2S albumin allergens, Bere1 and Ses i 1, across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 8631-9. 
(11) Yamada C, Yamashita Y, Seki R, Izumi H, Matsuda T, Kato Y. Digestion and (gastroitestinal absorption of the 14-16-kDa rice allergens. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006; 70: 1890-7. 
(12) Guimaraes V, Drumare MF, Lereclus D, Gohar M, Lamourette P, Nevers MC, Vaisanen-Tunkelrott ML, Bernard H, Guillon B, Créminon C, Wal JM, Adel-Patient K. In vitro digestion of Cry1Ab proteins and analysis of the impact on their immunoreactivity. J. Agric Food Chem . 2010; 21 : 3222-31 
(13) Adel-Patient K, Guimaraes VD, Paris A, Drumare M-F,Ah-Leung, S, Lamourette P, Nevers M-C,Canlet C, Molina J, Bernard H, Créminon C, Wal J-M. Immunological and metabolomic impacts of administration of Cry1Abprotein and MON 810 maize in mouse. PLoS One. 2011; 6: e16346 http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC3029317/ 
(14) Nakajima O, Teshima R, Takagi K, Okunuki H, Sawada J. ELISA method for monitoring human serum IgE specific for Cry1Ab introduced into genetically modified corn. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007; 47: 90-5. 
(15) Okunuki H, Teshima R, Shigeta T, Sakushima J, Akiyama H, Goda Y, Toyoda M, Sawada J. Source Increased digestibility of two products in genetically modified food (CP4-EPSPS and Cry1Ab) after preheating. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002; 43: 68-73. 
(16) Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajima Y. Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. J Anim Sci. 2003; 81: 2546-51. 
(17) M. Saito and Y. Nakajima E. H. Chowdhury, H. Kuribara, A. Hino, P. Sultana, O. Mikami, N. Shimada, K. S. Guruge, Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11 J Anim Sci, 2003; 81: 2546-2551 
(18) Chowdhury EH, Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Sultana P, Miyazaki S,Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Hirai N, Nakajima Y.. Detection of Cry1Ab protein in gastrointestinal contents but not visceral organs of genetically modified Bt11-fed calves. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003; 45: 72-5. 
(19) Paul V, Guertler P, Wiedemann S, Meyer HD. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion. www.lfl.bayern.de/ite/rind/35021/linkurl_0_2_0_8.pdf 
(20) Lutz B, Wiedemann S, Einspanier R, Mayer J, Albrecht C-Degradation of Cry1Ab Protein from Genetically Modified Maize in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract .J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005; 53 : 1453–1456 
(21) P. Guertler, B. Lutz, R. Kuehn, H. H. D. Meyer, R. Einspanier, B. Killermann and C. Albrecht. Fate of recombinant DNA and Cry1Ab protein after ingestion and dispersal of genetically modified maize in comparison to rapeseed by fallow deer (Dama dama). Eur J Wildlife Res. 2008; 54 : 38-43j 
(22) Albrecht C, Lutz B, Wiedemann C. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung von Transgenen durch Tiere über pflanzliche Verbreitungseinheiten  nach Magen-Darm-Passage und über horizontalen Gentransfer www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/skript225.pdf 
(23) JC Jennings, LD Albee, DC Kolwyck, JB Surber, ML Taylor, GF Hartnell, RP Lirette, and KC Glenn . Attempts to detect transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein in muscle from broilers fed YieldGard Corn Borer Corn .  Poultry Science, 2003; 82 : 371-380 
(24) Badea EM, Chelu F Lacatusu A.Results regarding the levels of Cry1Ab protein in transgenic corn tissue (MON810) and the fate of Bt protein in three soil types . Romanian Biotechnological Letters Vol. 15, No.1, Supplement, 2010. www.ebooks.unibuc.ro/biologie/RBL/rbl1vol15Supplement/7%20Elena%20MArcela%20Badea.pdf 
(25) Xu W, Cao S, He X, Luo Y, Guo X, Yuan Y, Huang K Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47: 1459-65. 
(26) Randhawa GJ, Singh M, Grover M. Bioinformatic analysis for allergenicity assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins expressed in insect-resistant food crops. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49 ; 356-62. 
(27) Agdia Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac ELISA Kit -ELISA for the detection of Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins Catalog number: PSP 06200 https://orders.agdia.com/Documents/m172.pdf_0 
(28) Furukawa K, Tengler R, de Weck AL, Maly FE. Simplified sulfidoleukotriene ELISA using LTD4-conjugated phosphatase for the study of allergen-induced leukotriene generation by isolated mononuclear cells and diluted whole blood. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1994; 4:110-5. 
(29) Pino RM. Binding of Fab-horseradish peroxidase conjugates by charge and not by immunospecificity. J Histochem Cytochem. 1985 Jan;33(1):55-8. 
(30) Envirologix.QualiPlate™ Combo Kit for Cry1Ab & Cry3Bb1 -Catalog Number: AP 039. http://www.envirologix.com/artman/publish/article_232.shtml 
(31) Quantitative ELISA for Bt-Cry1Ab. Immunoassay for quantitative detection of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins in transgenic crops. http://www.krishgen.com 
(32) Walschus U, Witt S, Wittmann C. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Cry1Ab Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis and Their Application in an ELISA for Detection of Transgenic Bt-Maize . Food and Agricultural Immunology , 2002; 14 : 231-230 
(33) Paul V, Steinke K, Meyer HD. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for surveillance of Cry1Ab toxin in bovine blood plasma of cows fed Btmaize(MON810). Analytica Chimica Acta, 2008; 607 : 106-113 
(34) Icoz I, Andow D, Zwahlen C, Stotzky G. Is the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) taken up by plants from soils previously planted with Bt corn and by carrot from hydroponic culture? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009; 83:48-58. 
(35) Crespo LB , Spencer ZA, Nekl E, Pusztai-Carey M, Moar WJ, Blair D, Siegfried W. Comparison and Validation of Methods To Quantify Cry1Ab Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis for Standardization of Insect Bioassays. Applied Environmental Microbiology , 2008; 74 :130–135 
(36) Zhu X, Chen L, Shen P, Jia J, Zhang D, Yang L. High Sensitive Detection of Cry1Ab Protein Using a Quantum Dot-Based Fluorescence-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. J Agric Food Chemistry. 2011; 59 : 2184-9.. 
(37) Case JT, Ardans AA. Nonspecific reactions in an enzyme-l inked immunosorbent assay caused by binding of immunoglobulins in situ to egg-propagated infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Dis. 1986; 30: 149-53. 
(38) Kuntz M. OGM et « pesticides » dans le sang ; première scientifique ou dernière pollution de la littérature scientifique. 2011 http://www.marcel-kuntz-ogm.fr/article-aris-leblanc-72486593.html 
(39) Matsubara T, Aoki N, Honjoh T, Mizumachi K, Kurisaki J, Okamjima T, Nadano D, Matsuda T. Absorption, migration and kinetics on peipheral blood of orally administered ovalbumin in a mouse model. Biosciences, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 2008; 72 : 2555-2565 
(40) Husby S., Jensenius J C, Svehag S-E . (1985), Passage of Undegraded Dietary Antigen into the Blood of Healthy Adults. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 1985; 22: 83–92. 
(41) Tsume Y; Taki Y; Sakane T; Nadai I; Sesake I, Watabe K, Kohno T, Yamashita S. Quantitative evaluation of the gastrointestinal absorption of protein into the blood and lymph circulation. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, 1996; 19 : 1332-1337 
(42) Veillerette P. Toutes les études scientifiques sur les pesticides. Pesticide Action Network. http://www.mdrgf.org 

HT: David Tribe (GMO Pundit)


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